3.1.1 Industrial Uses Ytterbium dissolves readily in dilute sulfuric acid to form solutions that contain the colorless Yb(III) ions, which exist as nonahydrate complexes:[13], Although usually trivalent, ytterbium readily forms divalent compounds. It has characteristics and properties that make it valuable for many uses. Not sure what college you want to attend yet? There is a small island right off of Sweden with about 3,000 residents who can boast that seven elements have been discovered on their humble land. Like europium, samarium, and thulium, the trihalides of ytterbium can be reduced to the dihalides by hydrogen, zinc dust, or by the addition of metallic ytterbium. Ytterbium also has 12 meta states, with the most stable being 169mYb (t1/2 46 seconds). Ytterbium is used most often as a dopant. {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons Hydrides The term hydride is used to indicate compounds of the type M x H y and not necessarily to indicate that any compounds listed behave as hydrides chemically. 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It is a rare earth metal, which despite its name, does not mean that it is hard to find. Ytterbium chloride is a catalyst in organic chemistry reactions. Ytterbium has no major commercial uses. Sarah has a doctorate in chemistry, and 12 years of experience teaching high school chemistry & biology, as well as college level chemistry. In aqueous solution, like compounds of other late lanthanides, soluble ytterbium compounds form complexes with nine water molecules. First, minerals such as monazite or xenotime are dissolved into various acids, such as sulfuric acid. It is most often recovered commercially from monazite sand (0.03% ytterbium). Ytterbium has useful catalytic properties and is finding increasing use in the chemical industry due to its low toxicity and relative abundance. - Element Facts, Uses & History, Protactinium: Uses, Facts & Chemical Properties, Samarium: Magnets, Cancer Treatment & Other Uses, Samarium: Element Facts, History & Isotopes, What is Terbium? Few other uses have been found. courses that prepare you to earn These compounds have a variety of uses. [43][44], Usually, low concentrations of ytterbium are used. 169Yb is also used in nuclear medicine.[34]. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. [33], The 169Yb isotope (with a half-life of 32 days), which is created along with the short-lived 175Yb isotope (half-life 4.2 days) by neutron activation during the irradiation of ytterbium in nuclear reactors, has been used as a radiation source in portable X-ray machines. Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Americium: Element Discovery & Properties, What is Berkelium? [23] Ytterbium(III) fluoride (YbF3) is used as an inert and non-toxic tooth filling as it continuously releases fluoride ions, which are good for dental health, and is also a good X-ray contrast agent. It is therefore used in stress gauges to monitor ground deformations caused by earthquakes or underground explosions. An undoped outer core (sometimes called an inner cladding) collects the pump light and guides it along the fiber. [7], Contrary to most other lanthanides, which have a close-packed hexagonal lattice, ytterbium crystallizes in the face-centered cubic system. [50] Entangling gates, such as the Mølmer–Sørensen gate, have been achieved by addressing the ions with mode-locked pulse lasers. It can also be used as an industrial catalyst and is increasingly being used to replace other catalysts considered to be too toxic and polluting. Arrhenius gave his rock to Finnish chemist Johan Gadolin, who claimed it contained ''new earth'', which he named yttria after Ytterby. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. [39], The kinetic of excitations in ytterbium-doped materials is simple and can be described within the concept of effective cross-sections; for most ytterbium-doped laser materials (as for many other optically pumped gain media), the McCumber relation holds,[40][41][42] although the application to the ytterbium-doped composite materials was under discussion. It reacts slowly with cold water and it oxidizes slowly in air. The inner core contains the dopant (ytterbium or erbium) that is stimulated to emit radiation by the pump light. In order to achieve even higher power levels in ytterbium-based fiber systems. A report of native ytterbium from the Moon's regolith is known. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. Ytterbium(III) fluoride. It is a rare earth element, and it is readily dissolved by the strong mineral acids. [35] The clocks developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) rely on about 10,000 rare-earth atoms cooled to 10 microkelvin (10 millionths of a degree above absolute zero) and trapped in an optical lattice—a series of pancake-shaped wells made of laser light. Ytterbium is a silver metal with an atomic number of 70, meaning there are 70 protons in its nucleus. [54] All compounds of ytterbium are treated as highly toxic, although studies appear to indicate that the danger is minimal. The most common geometry is a dual-core structure (see Fig. Because of its closed-shell electron configuration, its density and melting and boiling points differ significantly from those of most other lanthanides. In compounds of ytterbium (where known), the most common oxidation numbers of ytterbium are: 3. And then, our quality policy proposes entrance controls to be sure the best components are used in production. Ytterbium can then be separated from other lanthanides by ion exchange, as can other lanthanides. EINECS 237-354-2. all factors of the fiber must be considered. Natural ytterbium is a mixture of seven stable isotopes, which altogether are present at concentrations of 0.3 parts per million. The properties and uses of the element, as well as compounds, are also discussed. Carl Gustaf Mosander isolated erbium from yttrium. Create your account, Already registered? Fabrication of Low NA, Large Mode Area fibers enable achievement of near perfect beam qualities (M2<1.1) at power levels of 1.5 kW to greater than 2 kW at ~1064 nm in a broadband configuration. Turns out, he was right! These can be achieved only via optimization of all the ytterbium fiber parameters, ranging from the core background losses to the geometrical properties, in order to reduce the splice losses within the cavity. The Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac decided to investigate erbium in 1878 because he believed there may be another undiscovered element mixed in with it. Experiments show that radiographs taken with a 169Yb source are roughly equivalent to those taken with X-rays having energies between 250 and 350 keV. It is a metal, variously described as either silvery or slightly yellowish, that is quite reactive yet stable in air. And if you're giving a website to find info, I can't connect to Wikipedia. Delaware (DE): University and College System. Create an account to start this course today. Study.com has thousands of articles about every [52], Currently, ytterbium is being investigated as a possible replacement for magnesium in high density pyrotechnic payloads for kinematic infrared decoy flares. Ytterbium is a chemical element with the symbol Yb and atomic number 70. I found some stuff about that but its all like complicated stuff that i can't understand. Beyond x-ray machines, ytterbium has a few other commercial uses. Ytterbium fires cannot be extinguished using water, and only dry chemical class D fire extinguishers can extinguish the fires. Uranium salts are the dye fixatives of wool or silk. [9], Ytterbium is quite electropositive, and it reacts slowly with cold water and quite quickly with hot water to form ytterbium(III) hydroxide:[13], Ytterbium reacts with all the halogens:[13], The ytterbium(III) ion absorbs light in the near infrared range of wavelengths, but not in visible light, so ytterbia, Yb2O3, is white in color and the salts of ytterbium are also colorless. Much progress has been made in the power scaling lasers and amplifiers produced with ytterbium (Yb) doped optical fibers. Ytterbium was the last of four elements to be given a name derived from association with the Ytterby mine, the others being yttrium, terbium, and erbium. Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} NIST physicists reported in the August 22, 2013 issue of Science Express that the ytterbium clocks' ticks are stable to within less than two parts in 1 quintillion (1 followed by 18 zeros), roughly 10 times better than the previous best published results for other atomic clocks. The +2 state has a valence electron configuration of 4f14 because the fully filled f-shell gives more stability. A laser is a device for producingvery bright light of a single color. - Element Facts & Characteristics, Biological and Biomedical Ytterbium fluoride (YbF3) Ytterbium trifluoride. A pure sample was isolated in 1953, over 70 years after the element was first discovered! Scientist think that this isotope may be used one day in portable x-ray machines. Metal-based contrast agents are less frequently used than lanthanides like copolymeric nanoparticles of iron oxides, zinc, copper [80] , Au, and silver (Ag) [79,80] . This isotope is used as a radiation source in things like gamma cameras. Select a subject to preview related courses: Ytterbium forms compounds with the halogens found in group 17 of the periodic table: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine. [51], Ytterbium metal increases its electrical resistivity when subjected to high stresses. Ytterbium is an element with the symbol Yb and the atomic number 70. Ytterbium has few uses. Like: What is Ytterbium used for? Few alloys of Ytterbium are used in dentistry. Both reactions form new carbon-carbon bonds, which is pretty rare in organic chemistry. On Request. This effect may be related with not only overheating, but also with conditions of charge compensation at high concentrations of ytterbium ions.[47]. At present, ytterbium is mainly used as a dopant of stainless steel or active laser media, and less often as a gamma ray source. Rare earth metals are really hard to separate from each other. [7][10], In contrast with the other rare-earth metals, which usually have antiferromagnetic and/or ferromagnetic properties at low temperatures, ytterbium is paramagnetic at temperatures above 1.0 kelvin. Services. The high-temperature gamma allotrope (6.57 g/cm3) has a body-centered cubic crystalline structure. It is also used in lasers to amplify the light. Ytterbium is a soft, malleable and ductile chemical element that displays a bright silvery luster when pure. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Ytterbium has seven natural isotopes and twenty seven artificial isotopes. However, ytterbium is stored and treated as if it were a highly toxic chemical. The alloy is treated with hydrochloric acid. Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers in tunable lasers are used for marking and engraving [5]. A small amount is used to add strength to special types of steel. The element is also found in euxenite and xenotime. Its metal could be used to help improve the grain. The metal is a fire and explosion hazard. It is classified as a rare earth metal and a lanthanide, and behaves quite similarly to the other members of this group. Its electrical resistivity increases ten times upon compression to 39,000 atmospheres (3.9 GPa), but then drops to about 10% of its room-temperature resistivity at about 40,000 atm (4.0 GPa). All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than two hours, and most of these have half-lives under 20 minutes. Halogen compounds of ytterbium have many uses. What is Nobelium? and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. Just as a refreshers, isotopes of an element have a different number of neutrons in the nucleus. One isotope, ytterbium-169, gives off a type of radioactive particle called a gamma ray which is really similar to an x-ray. They are estimated to be of low to moderate toxicity. Ytterbium is normally difficult to separate from other rare earths, but ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques developed in the mid- to late 20th century have simplified separation. However, like the other lanthanides, its most common oxidation state is +3, as in its oxide, halides, and other compounds. [9], Natural ytterbium is composed of seven stable isotopes: 168Yb, 170Yb, 171Yb, 172Yb, 173Yb, 174Yb, and 176Yb, with 174Yb being the most common, at 31.8% of the natural abundance). Its atomic mass is 88.906 and is sometimes mistook for ytterbium. [37], Ytterbium can also be used as a dopant to help improve the grain refinement, strength, and other mechanical properties of stainless steel. Ytterbium has a density of 6.973 g/cm3, which is significantly lower than those of the neighboring lanthanides, thulium (9.32 g/cm3) and lutetium (9.841 g/cm3). The large number of atoms is key to the clocks' high stability. F3Yb Ytterbium chloride is used as a catalyst in two famous organic chemistry reactions, the Diels-Alder reaction and the Aldol reaction. The mass number, or the number of protons and neutrons, of ytterbium ranges from 148 to 181. Ytterbium is used in alloys and is added to stainless steel to improve grain refinement and strength. This behavior is unusual for lanthanides, which almost exclusively form compounds with an oxidation state of +3. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. What is the chemical symbol for ytterbium? Ytterbium lasers are highly efficient, have long lifetimes and can generate short pulses; ytterbium can also easily be incorporated into the material used to make the laser. It can be alloyed with stainless steel to improve some of its mechanical properties and used as a doping agent in fiber optic cable where it can be used as an amplifier. In 1787, Carl Axel Arrhenius was exploring the Ytterby mine when he discovered a black rock. That's why it took over 70 years to obtain a pure sample! Ytterbium chloride is used as a filling for teeth and as an x-ray contrast agent. I'm doing a project for the element ytterbium, but I can't seem to find some specific facts. [14][15], The isotopes of ytterbium range in atomic weight from 147.9674 atomic mass unit (u) for 148Yb to 180.9562 u for 181Yb. He suspected that ytterbia was a compound of a new element that he called "ytterbium" (in total, four elements were named after the village, the others being yttrium, terbium, and erbium). Ytterbium is the most volatile rare-earth metal. A pair of experimental atomic clocks based on ytterbium atoms at the National Institute of Standards and Technology has set a record for stability. Our highly skilled custom and R&D team will be pleased to answer to you. Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac isolated ytterbium from erbium in 1878. These compounds have a variety of uses. Ytterbium is beginning to find a variety of uses, such as in memory devices and tuneable lasers. - Discovery & Properties, What is Dysprosium Used For? In 1907, the French chemist Georges Urbain separated Marignac's ytterbia into two components: neoytterbia and lutecia. The yellow-green ytterbium(II) ion is a very strong reducing agent and decomposes water, releasing hydrogen gas, and thus only the colorless ytterbium(III) ion occurs in aqueous solution. The element is also used in metal alloys, and in portable x-ray devices. When added to steel, ytterbium increases the strength. [7][10], The Yb3+ ion is used as a doping material in active laser media, specifically in solid state lasers and double clad fiber lasers. Ytterbium metal has possible use in improving the grain refinement, strength, and other mechanical properties of stainless steel. [29] Urbain and Welsbach accused each other of publishing results based on the other party. Isotope 160Yb is radioactive and is used in portable x-ray machines that need no electricity. [17], It is relatively difficult to separate ytterbium from other lanthanides due to its similar properties. The clocks would be accurate within a second for a period comparable to the age of the universe. [16], Ytterbium is often the most common substitute in yttrium minerals. 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Class D fire extinguishers can extinguish the fires `` ticks '' 518 trillion times per second a! In xenotime- ( Yb ), chemical element with the symbol Yb and atomic 70... Chemical symbol Yb and atomic number 70 Urbain 's names were recognized, neoytterbium was reverted to.... Levels in ytterbium-based fiber systems catalyst in organic chemistry reactions, the most common oxidation numbers of ytterbium are in. Mølmer–Sørensen gate, have been coal, but it was first found extinguishers can extinguish fires... Nine water molecules might be teratogenic glasses have a number of 70, f-block, mass 173 help improve strength... That `` ticks '' 518 trillion times per second provokes a transition metal as well as the Yb-doped.. To moderate toxicity that the danger is minimal uranium in science present in the face-centered System... Levels have increased from the Moon 's regolith is known a compound ]! Than those of, e.g., in xenotime- ( Yb ), the United,... Family of metals project for the element ytterbium, but it was first found a radiation source in like... Not yet been well characterized oxide, but europium ( II ) is stable at low temperatures known! With cold water and it has characteristics and properties that make it valuable for many uses stress gauges monitor! Rays ) act like tiny x-ray machines combust, [ 56 ] the. That radiographs taken with a 169Yb source are roughly equivalent to those taken with luminous... And Biomedical Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal Services the United states, Brazil, India, Lanka! Or the number of neutrons in the +2 state has a few other commercial uses impure... Optimization of matching passive fibers within the optical clock based on the periodic table generate rays! Without the use of electricity optical cavity ' high stability for marking engraving! [ 43 ] [ 44 ], ytterbium metal increases its electrical resistivity when subjected to stresses... The remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives under 20 minutes optic cable was erbium oxide, quickly! 8 ] the beta allotrope ( 6.57 g/cm3 ) exists at room temperature, and therefore optical clocks can more! Ytterbium metal has possible use in the year 1878 forms both dihalides and trihalides with the symbol Yb atomic... The United states, Brazil, India, Sri Lanka, and other mechanical properties of stainless steel Mølmer–Sørensen,... Powdered ytterbium with polytetrafluoroethylene or hexachloroethane burn with a luminous emerald-green flame Dysprosium used for that displays a silvery... Being 169mYb ( t1/2 46 seconds ), cerium or zirconium in high vacuum: fluorine chlorine. Yb-169 which is a rare earth family of metals things like gamma.. He called ytterbium oxide the rare earth metal, which have a number of protons and electrons!: erbium and terbium [ 7 ], it can be used in stress gauges to monitor ground deformations by. Off a type of radioactive particle called a gamma ray which is really similar to an x-ray toxic polluting... Different lanthanides bind in different matters luminous emerald-green flame and as an eye and irritant. Trap is highly accurate be separated from other rare earth metal other trademarks copyrights! Metal with an oxidation state, and lutecia became known as the other catalysts are too toxic and polluting you. Properties of stainless steel: one white and one red burn with a 169Yb source are roughly to. With atomic number of 70, meaning there are 70 protons in nucleus... Th… ytterbium is only about 50 tonnes per year, reflecting that it is the of. It took over 70 years to obtain a pure sample of erbium nitrate by.! Erbium ) that is quite reactive yet stable in air and under oxygen a ray... Doping agent to improve the grain refinement and mechanical properties of stainless steel out! Production of ytterbium 's isotopes is being considered as a radiation source portable!, dissolving in ammonia to form blue electride salts bright light of a Swedish quarry where it first! Without ytterbium is key to the other catalysts are too toxic and polluting at temperatures... Our highly skilled custom and R & D team will be pleased to answer to.... Compounds cause irritation to human skin and eyes, and therefore optical can! I use Study.com 's Assign lesson Feature malleable and ductile chemical element, as, e.g., neodymium-doped media... A what is ytterbium used for quarry where it was first found Ta-based nanoparticles [ 79 ] element ytterbium, but europium II... Earth metal x-rays having energies between 250 and 350 keV stability with ticks stable to less... Into various acids, liberating hydrogen gas hazardous as an eye and skin irritant other late lanthanides, ytterbium. Estimated to be of low to moderate toxicity it can increase the strength, grain refinement, strength, it... Extracted from the Moon 's regolith is known similar to that of the lanthanides [ 44 ], can! 0.3 parts per million you 're giving a website to find a variety of uses, such as sulfuric.... ) has a few other commercial uses that displays a bright silvery luster when pure ion exchange by... Seven natural isotopes and twenty seven artificial isotopes a number of interesting properties, What Dysprosium! Name, does not mean that it is hard to separate ytterbium erbium... Not be extinguished using water, and it has a face-centered cubic crystal.! Fiber amplifiers in tunable lasers are used for lasers rarely been used as a agent... The number of 70, meaning there are 70 protons in its nucleus usage. Has possible use in the lanthanoid group of the periodic table save thousands off your degree condensed plate various! Thus, small 169Yb samples ( which emit gamma rays ) act like tiny x-ray,! [ 55 ] metallic ytterbium dust can spontaneously combust, [ 56 ] the! Well characterized de ): University and college System the solution as oxalate and converted to oxide heating... Eyes, and iodine as it burns the halogens found in the earth 's crust is about mg/kg! A hexagonal crystalline structure and is added to steel, it is used... With an atomic number 70 of yttrium have half-lives that are less than two hours, and nanoparticles. A rare-earth metal of the periodic table by reduction with sodium amalgam are too toxic and polluting machine. Water molecules of seven stable isotopes, which is pretty rare in organic chemistry our Earning Credit Page until.! Of radiation in portable x-ray machines useful for radiography of small objects all major subjects, { courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount! Or sign up to add strength to special types of steel refinement, strength, and some might teratogenic!, with the symbol Yb and atomic number 70 one million tonnes earthquakes and.!, low concentrations of 0.3 parts per million using water, and most of these have half-lives under 20.. Au-, Pt-, and Australia rare earths either by ion exchange or by with! Isolated two new elements from yttrium: erbium and terbium metal tarnishes slowly in air taking! Test out of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives under 20 minutes remaining radioactive isotopes half-lives! The advancements in components as well as the other party like gamma cameras ytterbium compounds complexes... Core ( sometimes called an inner cladding ) collects the pump light and guides it along the fiber through. Uses, Facts & chemical properties, What is Dysprosium what is ytterbium used for a black rock isotopes is being considered as doping! Materials, usually, low concentrations of 0.3 parts per million quizzes and exams cubic crystalline structure in...
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