However, it is likely that parents who reject MTB-MLE have not had an opportunity to see its benefits when it has been fully implemented and appropriately resourced for six years of primary school. UNESCO (2016b). Internationally, education theory favours mother-tongue instruction and recommends that schooling should begin in the language the child knows best, often their mother tongue. Comparative Education, 52 (3), 294-310. In many settings, teachers in so-called MTB-MLE are known to community members, who may be well aware of the teacher’s limited range of language and literacy skills. Hamburg: UNESCO/Tunis Belvédère: ADEA. In conversations in communities and with education policymakers, there is often widespread misunderstanding that the outcome of children’s education where MTB-MLE is used is that children will only become literate in their mother tongue and will have little or no chance to become literate in the dominant language. Folks: The posting below is a nice summary of various learning theories. MTB-MLE refers to “first-language-first” education that is, schooling which begins in the mother tongue and transitions to additional languages particularly Filipino and English. Analysis of the Influence of Mother Tongue on Students’ Performance in English in KCSE in Public Day Secondary Schools in Gatundu District, Kiambu County, Kenya JULIUS ANGOLI ATETWE A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Master of Education in Curriculum Studies and Instruction THE CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF EASTERN AFRICA Nairobi, Kenya SEPTEMBER, 2013 . Mother tongue-based bilingual / multilingual education [MTB-BLE, MTB-MLE] - continued Colleagues in the Project for the Study of Alternative Education in South Africa (PRAESA) began to use the earlier explanations Additive bilingual education [bilingual education based on … We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. The Education Ministry has set up a task force for preparing a roadmap on imparting technical education in the mother tongue.This decision was taken by the Union Education … Department of Education (DepEd) has implemented the use of mother tongue as a channel of instruction (DepEd order No. Rong, M. (2007). (May 2018). Paris: UNESCO. This often exceeds local human, financial, and technical resources. (Ed.) It is meant to address the high functional illiteracy of Filipinos where language plays a significant factor. Their children will not be ‘crippled’ by becoming literate in only one language. Hovens, M. (2002). Language education should be seen as multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary with a complex range of theories behind different teaching approaches. Most states that allow use of the mother tongue in early education use a bridging model, in which children are taught in the mother tongue for a few weeks or months, then in both the mother tongue and the dominant language for the first two or three years, and then transition to learning in the dominant language in the middle of primary school. Bilingual education is a term that can appeal to parents whose home language is the dominant language as well as to parents whose home language is a non-dominant language. Full implementation of education models that use more than one language requires a teacher who is proficient in the languages. Dequila et al (2015) wrote that the big books in MTB-MLE are materials that children can touch, featuring enlarged text and pictures, and can make learning “a wholesome and exciting learning adventure.” (August 2019). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. Parba, J. With all the students having a difficulty in coping with their lessons, Mother tongue-based multilingual education may be helpful or not in solving this problem.. INTRODUCTION. Mother-tongue education might also actually make the acquisition of a second language easier. A compendium of examples produced by UNESCO (2008b) attests to growing interest in promoting mother tongue-based education, and to the wide variety of models, tools, and resources now being developed and piloted to promote learning programs in the mother tongue. Relevance of Mother Tongue:- We are analysing the importance of mother tongue being the medium of education. The framework incorporated theories on mother tongue education, bilingual education, multilingual education, second language acquisition and academic language development. Ball, J. It is meant to address the high functional illiteracy of Filipinos where language plays a significant factor. three theories of the effects of language education 223 the basic rationale for bilingual education programs noted by the United States Commission on Civil Rights (1975) and embedded in Lau v. Nichols (1974). Final report: Study on medium of instruction in primary schools in Ethiopia. I work for the GPE Secretariat This is important to analyse because at the time when children develop their mother tongue, a simultaneous development of a host of other essential skills such as critical thinking and literacy skills takes place in them. This segregation can exacerbate parents’ fears that their children are receiving an education that erodes social harmony and will not lay the foundation for later success when children are mainstreamed. Optimizing learning education and publishing in Africa: The language factor. Linguistics and Education, 47, 27-35. Foreign languages are acquired in the same way. Mother tongue education (MTE) has been a subject of rigorous debate for more than half a century, in both industrialised and developing societies. (2012). Research report commissioned by the Ministry of Education, Addis Ababa, September to December, 2006. While studies have long supported the use of mother tongue as the language of instruction, they have primarily been conducted in community rather than national settings. © 2020 Global Partnership for Education. Another order was issued in 2012 that offered more specific guidelines for MTB-MLE and embedded the reform in the newly adopted ―K to 12 Basic Education Program‖ (Philippines Department of Education, 2012). This model promotes language of instruction in the mother tongue of the school district, rather than Filipino (Tagalog) or English. One of the changes in Basic Education Curriculum brought about by the K-12 program is the introduction of Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education. Language issues in comparative education: Inclusive teaching and learning in non-dominant languages and cultures. Most states that allow use of the mother tongue in early education use a bridging model, in which children are taught in the mother tongue for a few weeks or months, then in both the mother tongue and the dominant language for the first two or three years, and then transition to learning in the dominant language in the middle of primary school. Hamburg: UNESCO/Tunis Belvédère: ADEA. Mother tongue based multilingual education takes many forms and each school and each community should determine what works best for them. the only country in Southeast Asia to have instituted a national policy requiring mother tongue-based multilingual education (MTB-MLE) in the primary school years. Education. In C. Benson & K. Kosonen (Eds.). The mother tongue based education usually takes place in the language or dialect by which the learners earned from their parents and at home. 74, series of 2009). 105-156). Trudell, B., & Young, C. It drew substantially on the foundational works of Cummins (1976, 1979, 1980, 1984b, 1986), hence the earlier references throughout the thesis. Krashen argued that language minority children in all-English instruction who of mother tongue education, with the gradual introduction of English as a co-teaching medium until the end of Pri - mary school, as promoted but not implemented in the 1997 Language in Education Policy. Enhancing learning of children from diverse language backgrounds: Mother tongue-based bilingual or multilingual education in the early years. Its my “mother tongue” as its the only language I have predominantly used for close to half a century. Abstract We empirically evaluated three theoretical models—the threshold hypothesis, transfer theory, and time-on-task theory—for educating English language learners (ELLs), with a focus on the role of language factors in explaining achievement differences among ELLs. Heugh, K., Benson, C., Bogale, B., & Gebre Yohannes, M.A. They are bilingual programs. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. MTB-MLE resource kit: Including the excluded: Promoting multilingual education. Does bilingualism have an economic value in the ethnically mixed regions of Slovenia? As the number of English first-language speakers is only the fourth highest of all the language groups in South Africa, it follows that the majority of children in the country are taught in a language that is not their mother-tongue.School subjects in South Africa are either taught in English from grade 1 all the way through to matric or the first three years of education are presented in the children’s first language (any of the other ten official o… Optimizing learning, education and publishing in Africa: The language factor. Tweet; Post By Topic. I work in academia Children learn better in their mother tongue . Education Notes: In their own language….education for all. In some places, helping the teachers produce mother tongue materials are other education stakeholders such as universities, non-government organizations, and mother tongue advocates. The way that MTB-MLE has been described, offered, and observed may contribute to low parent demand in some settings. In A. Ouane & C. Glanz (Eds.). 19-35). I work for a government agency 4.1 Adopt a dog September 4, 2015 At 7:36 pm Platform my brother platform. Kenya has legislated a Language in Education (LiE) policy to use mother tongue in lower primary classes (class 1-3), yet the pupils in Tabaka Division of Kenya continue to perform poorly in national examinations. In contrast, using the mother tongue as the medium of instruction for only three years and then switching to the dominant language has not been shown to have the same positive results in these countries or other settings worldwide (Ball, 2010; Heugh & Skutnabb-Kangas, 2012; Ouane & Glanz, 2011; Walter & Benson, 2012). In bilingual education, it requires a bilingual teacher, or two teachers with different language capacities who co-teach or divide the school day or week between them. This is generally the case in Cambodia, for example, where the government supports MLE for Indigenous children, but few teachers are proficient in both Khmer and an Indigenous language. The second main component of the bill addresses the linguistic discrimination that occurs in emphasizing English education, by implementing Mother Tongue Based, Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE). Dallas, TX: SIL International. Hence the principle of an ‘additive approach’ to language learning and the value of at least six years of mother tongue education, with the gradual introduction of English as a co-teaching medium until the end of Pri - mary school, as promoted but not implemented in the 1997 Language in Education Policy. Big books. The perception that children will not gain enough proficiency in the dominant language to succeed in later grades may be due in part to the challenge of recruiting teachers who are able to speak, read and write in the local language as well as in the dominant language (Trudell & Young, 2018). Phnom Penh: Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. Other. The Gambia. While the early exit approach does ease students’ entry into classroom instruction, it does not build upon research about the necessary conditions for cross-linguistic transfer of literacy skills, calling into question whether MTB-MLE is an apt term. In settings where the mother tongue and one other language are used in education, we might lower resistance and increase parent demand if the term MTB-MLE is replaced with the more accurately descriptive term bilingual education, and the co-teaching of the dominant or ‘high prestige’ language alongside the mother tongue is emphasized. Hence, the learners enter into the cocoon of bilingualism or multilingualism. "The notion of 'mother tongue' is thus a mixture of myth and ideology. The World Bank (2005). The education ministry wants to look at offering courses like engineering, medicine and law in the students’ mother tongue. 105-156). In this new series, GPE asks changemakers five questions on the power of education. Optimizing learning education and publishing in Africa: The language factor. English in Ghana: Growth, tensions, and trends. In Spolsky, B. The early exit approach is not likely to produce skills that readily transfer to becoming literate in additional languages (Bialystok et al., 2005; Cummins, 2009; Heugh, 2011). Proponents of MTB-MLE seek solutions to lower parents’ resistance. This is known as an ‘early exit transitional’ model. Mother tongue(first language, native language, or L1) is essential for learning as a part of intellectual ability. Varied realities surround the use of mother tongue education in Africa. Where only one additional language is used, a more apt term in most situations is bilingual education. Erling, E. J., Adinolfi, l., Hultgren, A.K., Buckler, A., & Mukorera, M. (2016). Mother tongue education is a sore point with South Africans, teachers and officials, with two main perspectives prevailing. Ouane, A. Social justice through multilingual education (pp. Another situation that can increase resistance to MTB-MLE, seen in some communities, is when there is an MTB (only) classroom for ethnic minority children, and dominant language classrooms for everyone else. 278-300). On the one hand, it seems reasonable and desirable that learners should be able to receive education in their mother tongue, if they so wish. The second main component of the bill addresses the linguistic discrimination that occurs in emphasizing English education, by implementing Mother Tongue Based, Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE). Limon, D, & Lukanovič, N. S. (2016). Despite disparate views on MTE, there is an uneasy consensus on its importance in educational systems, especially in the foundational years. Parents usually have their children’s best interests at heart. In many situations, the term bilingual education (BLE) may offer parents a clearer understanding of schooling in more than one language. 159-185). Professor Jim Cummins from the University of Toronto has written about the importance of mother tongue. Cummins, J. Kiswahili was especially favored in education for purposes of national and regional unity. Children learn better in their mother tongue Yet, with the promise of producing bilingual, biliterate citizens, what accounts for parents’ resistance to MTB-MLE? I work for an international organization During this period, mother tongue was preferred for verbal communication especially in rural areas, while English and Kiswahili were preferred for education from lower primary to the university. The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly. ”Pedagogical Competencies for Mother-Tongue Teacher Education”. Pedagogical Competencies for Mother-Tongue Teacher Education Traditionally, teacher education has been divided into theory and practice. Paris/Bangkok: UNESCO. (2013). Perhaps the use of the term “mother tongue based” itself has not been helpful. MoEYS Cambodia (2010) Guidelines on implementation of bilingual education programs for Indigenous children in highland provinces. Language policy and medium of instruction in formal education. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. The COVID-19 pandemic has shone a light on the huge inequalities already faced by children with disabilities in terms of access to quality education. "Strong Bridge" - an essential difference between MLE programs and rural "mother tongue education" programs is the inclusion of a guided transition from learning through the mother tongue to learning through another tongue. Walter, S., & Benson, C. (2012). theories can be considered as a great pendulum cycled from Skinnerian environmentalism to Piagetian constructivism to Chomskian innatism. Speakers of mother tongues, which are not the same as the national language, are often at a considerable disadvantage in the educational system.” With MTB-MLE, we expand the access to social, political, economic and physical development processes, which are often unreachable for children who speak a different mother tongue. (Eds.). Rather. All rights reserved. The mother tongue is used as a medium of instruction in all learning areas except in the teaching of Filipino and English subjects. It is also common throughout Canada, where communities aim to introduce Indigenous language-based education that also uses English or French, however there are almost no qualified teachers who are able to speak, read and write an Indigenous language (Ball & McIvor, 2013). Since School Year (SY) 2012-2013, the Mother Tongue-Based-Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) began to be implemented in all public schools, specifically in Kindergarten, Grades 1, 2 and 3 as part of the K to 12 Basic Education Program. Heugh, K. (2011). Rutu Foundation, Children learn better and faster in a language they can understand (preventing delays in learning), They enjoy school more, they feel more at home, Pupils tend to show increased self-esteem, Parents participation is increased. & Glanz, C. (2018). For example, in Ethiopia (Heugh, 2011) and Eritrea (Walter & Davis, 2005), the longer the mother tongue was used as the primary language of instruction (up to 8 years) in a multilingual classroom, the better national examination results. Fundamental psycholinguistic and sociological principles underlying education success for linguistic minority students. In fact, this may be the outcome, if a teacher primarily focuses on literacy in the mother tongue, and children do not continue their education beyond the primary grades, when education in the dominant language is the norm in fully implemented MTB-MLE. Language issues in comparative education: Inclusive teaching and learning in non-dominant languages and cultures. © Center for Promoting Ideas, USA This study was conducted to find the relationship of the Mother Tongue Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) to the acquisition of the English learning competencies of the Grade 4 pupils. Edu-Buandoh, D. F., and G. Otchere 2012. Culture and Mother Tongue "It is the language community of the mother tongue, the language spoken in a region, which enables the process of enculturation, the growing of an individual into a particular system of linguistic perception of the world and participation in the centuries-old history of linguistic production." It may be surprising to know that the problems that philosophers in Ancient Greece and 16th century France were concerned about are largely still relevant today. The Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education policy is complex from different perspectives. Hamburg: UNESCO/Tunis Belvédère: ADEA. Additionally, it can refer to the mother tongue as a subject of instruction. Mother tongue is the language human beings acquire from birth. All multi-language education models recommend integrating children with diverse languages in shared classrooms for all or most subjects. Sustainable Development Goal 4 aspires to at least one year of pre-primary school and free, equitable quality primary and secondary education. There has been steady growth in opportunities for children to start school in their mother tongue (called “home language”, or L1), in various forms of mother tongue-based multilingual education (MTB-MLE) (Benson & Kosonen, 2013; UNESCO, 2016). ‘“Speak English!” A prescription or choice of English as a lingua franca in Ghanaian schools.” Linguistics and Education, 23 (3): 301-309. Burton, Lisa Anne. (2009). Good answers to tough questions in mother tongue-based multilingual education. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Canada’s big chill: Indigenous languages in education. Bilingualism or multilingualism as part of the child’s education program comes as the core of some pedagogical issues. It is considered to be an important component of quality education, particularly in the … These theories predict that several years of mother-tongue instruction will lead to better second-language acquisition than being instructed in that second language from the … All fields are required. Teachers’ shifting language ideologies and teaching practices in Philippine mother tongue classrooms. UNESCO’s areas of work. A review and analysis of theory and practice in mother-tongue and bilingual education in sub-Saharan Africa (pp.

theories of mother tongue education

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